Western blotting WB (immunoblotting) is a widely practiced\u00a0analytical technique to detect target proteins within samples\u00a0using antigen-specific antibodies. WB involves two major\nprocesses: Separation of soluble proteins into discrete bands and\u00a0transfer of those proteins onto a solid matrix for subsequent\u00a0analysis by immunological probes. Under standard denaturing conditions, SDS-polyacrylamide gel\u00a0electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) is used to separate sample\u00a0proteins based on polypeptide length. The separated proteins\u00a0are transferred (blotted) onto a membrane matrix of\u00a0nitrocellulose or PVDF where they are stained with antibody\u00a0probes specific to target protein antigens. Typically, blots are\u00a0incubated with antibodies against the antigen of interest\u00a0followed by a secondary antibody and detection. Analysis of protein migration and the intensity of chromogenic,\u00a0chemiluminescent, or fluorescent signals offer protein\u00a0expression details from cells or tissue homogenates. When\ncoupled with high-resolution gel electrophoresis, antibodies of\u00a0strong avidity and specificity to target antigens, and robust signal\u00a0reporting, Western blotting can detect picogram quantities of\u00a0protein.