After the earthquake, the important task of the earthquake emergency rescue work is to minimize casualties, but due to the sudden earthquake disasters, it is difficult to get enough disaster information immediately, especially the personnel distribution and movement information. The traditional method to obtain disaster data is through the earthquake report of the disaster area or the field investigation of the emergency rescue team, the work is lag and low efficiency. This paper analyzes the feasibility of mobile phone location signal data in earthquake emergency rescue work from several aspects, such as quantity, location, change rate, and epicentral distance. The results show that the mobile phone location signal data can quickly obtain the situation of the personnel distribution and quantity after the earthquake, we find the change rate, the distance, etc. can determine the approximate range of the earthquake impact field. Through the data distribution in different time periods, the movement of the personnel after the earthquake can be obtained. Based on several situations, we can obtain the basic situation of the disaster-stricken areas in time after the earthquake, especially the personnel relevant situation, and this data can provide a scientific basis for emergency rescue decision-making.