Paraffin sections (4 \u03bcm thickness) of formalin-fixed human pancreases were treated with heat\/citrate buffer for antigen retrieval. Sdc-1core proteins were detected immunohistochemically using rat anti-mouse CD138 (Sdc-1) mAb (BD Biosciences), with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated rabbit anti-rat Ig (Dako). Background staining was checked using the corresponding isotype control Ig instead of the primary antibody. 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (AEC) was used as the chromogen. For morphometry, stained sections were imaged using a light microscope with attached camera (Olympus BX41). Image J software with color deconvolution plugin was used for the quantitative analysis of the % of islet area stained.