Aggression in chickens is a serious economic and welfare issue. Pigmentation traits have been well documented to be associated with animal behaviour. Previous studies have shown that chicken pecking behaviour is related to the feather colour and premelanosome protein 17 (PMEL17) is one of the candidate genes. In the present study, we performed a genotypic and phenotypic association analysis between chicken plumage colour (red and white) and aggressive behaviour in an F1 hybrid group, generated by crossing an autosome dominant white feather breed, White Leghorn (WL), and a red feathered breed, Rhode Island Red (RIR). In genetic theory, the progeny should all have white feathers since the WL are homozygous autosome dominant white. However, we found a few red-feathered female chickens. We compared aggressiveness between the red and white females to determine whether the feather colour alone affected the behaviour since the genetic background should be the same except for the feather colour. The aggressiveness was recorded 5 days after sex maturity at 26 weeks. Generally, white plumage hens showed significantly higher aggressiveness than the red ones did in chase, attack, peck, and threatening behaviour. We also detected three feather colour candidate genes, PMEL17, solute carrier family 45 member 2 (SLC45A2), and SRY-box 10 (SOX10) in determining the genetic foundation for the red and white feather colour in our hybrids population and there was no association between the three loci and the feather colour. Additional studies should be conducted to elucidate further the genetic or phenotypic mechanisms underlying the feather colours and the behaviour.