Compare estimates of the numbers of people living within 1, 5, and 10 km from the coast in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). These distances are somewhat arbitrary, but in the absence of generally agreed definitions of the \u2018coastal zone\u2019 and of more integrated analyses that include elevation above sea level, livelihood portfolios and other measure of exposure to the ocean, they provide a logical basis for the analyses. Three coastal zones at 1, 5, and 10 km were mapped onto every populated island for each PICT. People residing within 1 km were considered to live on the coast, those within 5 km included those who could still easily walk to the coast and 10 km, those who interact with coastal communities (e.g. in terms of access to markets or other activities) and who would be able to easily get to the coast with some form of transport.\nThe two global datasets used to spatially distribute populations were the SEDAC-CIESIN Gridded Population of the World v4 and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory LandScan\u2122. GPWv4 is a minimally modelled population dataset that uniformly distributes census data from their native enumeration areas. LandScan\u2122 allocates population census data using dasymetric cartographic techniques relying on ancillary data such as land cover, roads, terrain slope, urban extent, and accessibility to model population density at 30 arc-second grid resolution within administrative boundaries. Both global datasets distributed populations within enumeration areas to 30 arc second cells (approximate 1 km2 at the Equator).\nThe following protocol explains the workflow used to calculate the Coastal Population Estimates for PICTs.\nThe protocol involves three main steps:Generation of 1, 5 and 10 km coastal buffersSpatial disaggregation of the census population datasets using one of the three methods based on data availability. This step is not applicable for the global population grids.Overlay the coastal buffer mask on the disaggregated population datasets and sum the population contained within the coastal buffers to calculate the percentage of the country\u2019s population within each of the three coastal zones.